Scrum Roles Events and Artifacts
Scrum Roles, Events, and Artifacts play a very important role in the scrum process. defines five events (sometimes called ceremonies) that occur inside each Sprint: Backlog Grooming, Sprint Planning, Sprint, Sprint Review, and Sprint Retrospective.
Backlog grooming – This is all about organizing the backlog items as per the requirement given by the customer based on priority. The responsibility of this event is of the product owner who has to drive the product towards its goal with having a constant surge over the market and it’s customers.
This needs a continuous effort so that the important features are implemented first by the development team. The prioritization is done based on the analysis of the story which is “Must have”, “Good to have” and “Deferred” for the product.
Sprint Planning – The scope of the work to be performed in the current sprint is planned during the sprint meeting by the entire development team in the presence of the product owner. The sprint meeting is led by the scrum master where the team comes together and decides the sprint goal.
Specific user stories are added and form sprint backlog from the product backlog to the sprint. These stories are agreed upon by the scrum team to be feasible to implement during the sprint.
At the end of the planning meeting, scrum member has a list of backlog items or rather say sprint backlog to be delivered in the sprint which must align with the sprint goal.
Sprint – A sprint is the duration time when the scrum team works together to finish the implementation and Testing of the scoped backlog items. It is usually carried out for two to four weeks. During this time, the scope of the sprint can also get negotiated between the product owner and the development team if necessary. Daily Scrum or Standup is an important part of the sprint.
Daily stand-ups are the shortest meeting, usually for 15mins (as defined in the guideline) happen everyday morning. The goal of the daily scrum is to keep everyone from the team on the same page and discuss the challenges or blockers (if any). It is to ensure that the team aligned with the sprint goal.
A common way to conduct a stand up is to answers three questions by every team member:
- What did I do yesterday?
- What do I plan to do today?
- Are there any blockers/challenges?
Sprint Review – At the end of the sprint, the team gets together to showcase a demo about the feature or backlogs implemented in the sprint. The team arranges a demo to the product owner and sometimes the business requirement team for feedback for all the backlog items that are marked as ‘Done’.
The product owner takes a decision on releasing the final product. If the implementation is satisfying the acceptance criteria of the backlog, mostly the increment is released.
In review meeting product owner also notes down the pending items from the current sprint and reworks on the product backlog, which can further go to the upcoming sprint planning session.
Sprint Retrospective – In sprint retrospective meeting, the team comes together to document and discuss what went well and what didn’t go well and what can be improved in a sprint, a project, people, tools, etc. The idea is to take learning from the sprint and improvise the sprint process in a better way. It is carried out by sprint master with the team members.
Different Roles in Scrum
There are three roles in it, and their responsibilities are:
Scrum Master: The scrum master leads the team and guiding them to comply with the rules and processes of the scrum methodology. Their primary job is to set up the scrum team, arrange meetings, keep scrum up to date, mentoring, and arrange training if required. They work directly with the Product Owner to maximize the ROI and remove obstacles for the process.
Product owner: The product owner manages the product backlog, prioritizes the backlog, and is responsible for the distribution of functionality on each iteration. They focus on the business part and is responsible for the ROI of the project. Their primary job is to work with the business team and manage the product backlog list and anticipate the benefits in stories for the product and prioritize them on a regular basis.
Scrum Team: The scrum team has both developers and testers who actually work on the implementation of the product backlog followed by the verification process. The primary job starts right from raising clarifications, providing estimates to implementation, or testing to the delivery of the product. Team members have different skillsets to work together and form a scrum team.
Product Backlog – It is the master list of requirements that are captured in the form of user stories given by the customer. This product backlog is a dynamic list where a new requirement gets added, or existing requirements are modified. It could be the requirement of a new feature, enhancement, Change request, or fixes which act as an input for the sprint backlog.
The product backlog is maintained by the product owner or product manager who prioritized the backlog items based on the needs of the user or market demand.
The most popular and successful way to create a product backlog using Scrum methodology is to populate it with user stories, which are short descriptions of the functionality described from the perspective of a user or customer.
Sprint Backlog – It is a set of user stories/ product backlog, selected by the development team for implementing in the current sprint cycle. The selection is done based on the backlog priority. The sprint backlog is maintained by the scrum master.
The backlog is finalized in the sprint planning meeting where the sprint team comes together to selects the items which they are set to work in the sprint after discussing with the product owner.
The sprint backlog could be flexible or diversified during the sprint, however, the important sprint backlog items cannot be compromised without justifying major concerns.
Sprint Goal – It is the final product from a sprint which have the implemented backlog items from the sprint. At the end of the sprint, a demo to the product owner and business requirement team is given by the sprint team of all the implemented items.
While it is up to the Product Owner to decide on when the final product has to be released. While it is the team’s responsibility to make sure everything that is included in a product is ready to be released. This is also referred to as the Potentially Shippable Increment (PSI).